# Aircraft Design MCQ -Conceptual Sketch Sizing – Fuel-Fraction Estimation-2

1 - Question

What does the following diagram represents?

a) Simple cruise mission profile
b) Accelerated cruise
c) Bomber mission
d) Penetration strike
Explanation: The diagram is representing altitude vs time relation. It is also called ‘mission profile’ of an aircraft. This mission profile consist only basic phases of flight. Hence, it can be termed as simple cruise mission profile.

2 - Question

For given mission leg ‘n’, mission leg weight fraction is _____
a) Wn / Wn-1
b) Wn / Wn-2
c) Wn-1 / Wn+1
d) Wn / Wn+1
Explanation: For any mission leg or mission phase, mission fuel fraction is ratio of fuel weight at the end and at beginning of each phase. Hence, if it is mission phase n then, (n-1) will be the phase before nth phase. Hence, correct answer is Wn / Wn-1.

3 - Question

Which of the following is part of the fuel-fraction method?
a) Developing lofting
b) Empty weight fraction
c) Calculating individual mission segment weight fraction
d) Finding volume ratio
Explanation: Lofting is a vital part of preliminary design phase. The fuel fraction method is very simple and basic approximation method. Here, mission profile is divided and then for every individual phase we calculate mission segment weight fraction.

4 - Question

An Aircraft has gross weight of 10000lb. At the end of the mission segment it has weight fraction as 0.985. Determine fuel consumed for this mission.
a) 150lb
b) 150kg
c) 60kg
d) 60lb
Explanation: Given, Aircraft gross weight W0 = 10000lb Fuel weight fraction at the end of mission = Wx/W0 = 0.985 Here, there is no provision of reserved fuel is mentioned. So, we are neglecting reserve fuel fraction. Now, from fuel fraction method, Used fuel weight fraction is Wf / W0 = 1 – (Wx / W0) = 1 – 0.985 = 0.015 Hence, fuel consumed during this mission = Wf = W0 * 0.015 = 10000 * 0.015 = 150lb.

5 - Question

Choose appropriate option for cruise mission leg weight fraction.
a) Breguet endurance formula
b) Breguet range formula
c) Cruise invert method
d) Breguet approximation
Explanation: Breguet endurance formula is used to determine the endurance of aircraft. Range formula is used to calculate range for respective mission. In simple sizing method we consider that the cruise is ending with descent. Also, we assume that cruise range has accounted for descent as well. Hence, we use range formula to determine fuel fraction.

6 - Question

A jet aircraft is cruising at 12000ft. What will be the cruise leg (mission phase ‘n’) weight fraction?
a) Wn/Wn-1 = e(−R∗CV∗LD)
b) Wn/Wn+1 = e(−R∗CV∗LD)
c) Wn/Wn-2 = e(−R∗CV∗LD)
d) Wn/Wn-1 = e(−R∗CV∗LD)
Explanation: Aircraft is cruising at 12000ft and the cruise mission leg is nth mission phase of whole mission profile. Here, we will use Breguet range formula to find Weight fraction. Breguet range formula, R = (V/C) * (L/D) * ln (Wn-1/ Wn) Now by re-arranging, cruise mission leg weight fraction is, Wn/Wn-1 = e(−R∗CV∗LD)

7 - Question

What will be the total fuel weight fraction for x-number of mission phases?
a) Wf / W0 = 1 – (Wx / W0)
b) Wf / W0 = 1 + (Wx / W0)
c) Wf / W0 = 1 / (Wx / W0)
d) Wf / W0 = 1 + (Wx / W0)
Explanation: The fuel-fraction method is used to determine total fuel weight fraction. According to which if there are x – number of mission phases in mission profile then the total fuel weight fraction is given by, Wf / W0 = 1 – (Wx / W0) Since, reserved fuel is not mentioned we can neglect it.

8 - Question

What will be the weight fraction of the aircraft at final mission segment w.r.t. W0?
a) Multiplication of individual weight fraction
b) Division of individual weight fraction
c) Addition of individual weight fraction
d) Subtraction of individual weight fraction
Explanation: We can divide whole mission profile of aircraft into number of mission phases or legs. Fuel fraction at each mission segment will be fuel weight at end of phase to that of beginning. Hence, if there are z – number of mission phase then, final mission phase fraction will be multiplication of individual weight fraction which will give weight fraction w.r.t. take-off gross weight W0

9 - Question

How will you determine climb mission weight fraction?
a) Climb Endurance
b) Loiter
c) Always constant
d) Cruise Speed
Explanation: Climb phase usually measured by rate of climb. Climb endurance formula is used to determine the endurance of aircraft at climb phase. Typically we can find climb weight fraction from historic time line however in some cases we can also use climb endurance formula to determine fuel fraction.

10 - Question

If all the other factors remain unchanged and only aerodynamic efficiency of the aircraft is doubled then, what will be the cruise segment fuel weight fraction?
a) Will increase
b) Will decrease
c) Will remain same
d) Will be independent of aerodynamic efficiency
Explanation: Cruise phase fuel fraction is determined by using range formula as follows: Wn/Wn-1 = e(−R∗CV∗LD) Now if we double the value of aerodynamic efficiency the denominator will increase which in turn increases fuel fraction during cruise.

11 - Question

Fuel consumption during cruise is affected by wetted area.
a) True
b) False
Explanation: Fuel conception or fuel fraction during cruise segment will be affected by the overall aerodynamic efficiency. The aerodynamic efficiency is ratio of lift and drag. Lift is directly affected by the wetted area, which affects L/D. As a result, it will affect fuel fraction during cruise mission phase.

12 - Question

A prop-driven aircraft is cruising with 90% propeller efficiency. If, range of aircraft is 7*106 ft, C=1.38*10-7 s-1 and L/D = 14 then what will be the fuel weight fraction for the cruise?
a) 0.9216
b) 0.9261
c) 0.9289
d) 0.9365
Explanation: Given, a prop-driven aircraft, Range R = 7*106 ft, C = 1.38*10-7 s-1, L/D =14 Here, propeller efficiency is 90% hence, η = 0.9 Now cruise weight fraction is given by range formula. For, prop-driven aircraft it is given by, Wcruise / W0 = e(−R∗Cη∗LD) = e−(7∗106∗1.38∗10−70.9∗14) = 0.9261.

13 - Question

An Aircraft has following mission profiles with their respective mission weight fraction. There is 10% allowance of reserved fuel. Now, due to some reason loiter weight fraction has changed to 0.90. Now, with same amount of fuel as initial, will aircraft be able to perform loiter? Mission Weight fraction Engine start-up 0.975 Taxi 0.98 Climb 0.970 Cruise 0.989 Loiter 0.96 Landing 0.975
a) Yes, loiter can be performed
b) No, loiter cannot be performed
c) Will not depend on change
d) 12% less fuel will require