Engineering Questions with Answers - Multiple Choice Questions
Primary Production of Milk Engineering MCQs
1 - Question
What does NSC stand for?
a) Nonstructural Carbons
b) Nitrogen Standard Calculation
c) Nonstructural Carbohydrates
d) Nitrogen Substitute Calories
Explanation: NSC is Nonstructural Carbohydrate. Generally, feedstuff that is high in fiber is low in nonstructural carbohydrates and low in energy. For example, grass hay is high fiber and low in nonstructural carbohydrates and energy.
2 - Question
What do nonstructural carbohydrates consist of?
b) Plant proteins, pectin, and sugar
c) Plant sugars
d) Plant starch, pectin, and sugar
Explanation: Carbohydrates can be divided into two general categories: nonstructural and structural carbohydrates. Starches, pectin and sugars are known as nonstructural carbohydrates and are digested by enzymes and absorbed in the foregut.
3 - Question
What acid is formed when nonstructural carbohydrates are digested in the rumen?
a) Lactic acid
b) Citric acid
c) Propyl-hydro chloride
d) Propionic acid
Explanation: Starches and sugars are known as nonstructural carbohydrates and are digested by enzymes and absorbed in the foregut. They form Propionic acid when digested in the rumen.
4 - Question
What fat-soluble vitamins do fats provide?
a) Vitamins A, D, E, and K
b) Vitamins A, B, E, and K
c) Vitamins A, C, E, and K
d) Vitamins A, C, D, E, and K
Explanation: The fat-soluble vitamins, A, D, E, and K, are stored in the body for long periods of time and generally pose a greater risk for toxicity when consumed in excess than water-soluble vitamins. Eating a normal, well-balanced diet will not lead to toxicity in otherwise healthy individuals.
5 - Question
How much more energy do fats contain per unit than carbohydrates and proteins?
Explanation: Fats require more oxidation to become CO2 and H2O than do carbohydrates. Generally, fats provide about 9 kilocalories per gram and carbohydrates provide about 4 kilocalories per gram.
6 - Question
Which cows have higher protein requirements?
a) High-producing and open cows
b) Low-producing and pregnant cows
c) High-producing and pregnant cows
d) Low-producing and open cows
Explanation: Ruminants need a daily supply of all nutrients required for maintenance and production: milk, meat, growth and pregnancy. Quantitatively any of the types of a nutrient can limit performance levels, but the most likely to be in short supply are energy and protein; this is especially true for high and average yielding cows.
7 - Question
Where are degradable proteins broken down?
Explanation: Degradable Protein (RDP) is the fraction of Crude Protein (CP) consumed which is broken down by rumen microbes. A much simpler bench top was proposed in which feed samples are incubated with a mixture of protein- degrading enzymes extracted from the rumen.
8 - Question
Where are undegradable proteins absorbed?
a) Large intestine
c) Small Intestine
Explanation: Undegradable protein (RUP) is defined as that portion of dietary protein that escapes degradation by ruminal microorganisms and is passed into the small intestine for digestion and absorption. Metabolizable protein (MP) is defined as the true protein absorbed in the small intestine.
9 - Question
What is the average mature weight for a Jersey cow?
a) 1000 lb
b) 1400 lb
c) 800 lb
d) 500 lb
Explanation: The average mature size for Jerseys is approximately 1,000 pounds and the range in weight and height of mature Jersey cows is narrower compared to ranges described for larger dairy breeds.
10 - Question
If there are large numbers of flies around the dairy barn, what should be the first thing to be examined in an attempt to solve the fly problem?
a) Cow feeding procedures
b) Milking procedures
c) Manure handling procedures
d) Calf feeding procedures
Explanation: Fly problems are quite common in dairy farms. In order to handle such problems, the first step is to check into the manure handling procedures.
11 - Question
When referring to rations, what do the letters NFC stand for?
a) Not for Consumption
b) Non-fungus Community
c) National Football Camp
d) Nonforage Carbohydrates
Explanation: Some laboratories distinguish between NFC (non-fiber carbohydrate) and NSC (nonstructural carbohydrate). They define NFC by the above equation [100-(%NDF + %CP + %Fat + Ash)]. They define NSC as only the starches and sugars in the feed or forage. Starches and sugars can be determined directly by enzymatic analysis.
12 - Question
Where is the National Cheese Exchange Located?
a) Chicago, Illinois
b) Green Bay, Wisconsin
c) Madison Wisconsin
d) Eau Claire, Wisconsin
Explanation: The National Cheese Exchange (NCE) was a private non-profit corporation that operated in Green Bay, Wisconsin. Each Friday morning for one-half hour, members of the NCE met to buy or sell cheddar cheese in 40-pound blocks and 500-pound barrels on the exchange.
13 - Question
In a cow, where would you find an alveolus?
Explanation: The interior of each quarter of the udder is composed of a teat cistern, a gland cistern, milk ducts, and glandular tissue. The glandular tissue placed deep within the udder contains millions of microscopic sacs called alveoli; each alveolus is lined with milk-producing epithelial cells.
14 - Question
When discussing lactation records, what does the term “fat corrected milk” mean?
a) Fat has been added to the milk to the correct level
b) Fat has been extracted from the milk to the correct level
c) Lactation records are being adjusted to the same milk fat percentage
d) The lactation record have an average amount of milk fat
Explanation: Fat-corrected milk (FCM) is a means of adjusting the milk yield for the amount of fat in the milk to reflect the relative energy concentration in the milk, thus it reflects the amount of energy required to produce the given amount of milk. It means Lactation records have been adjusted to the same milk fat percentage.
15 - Question
What percent non-fiber carbohydrate should a ration contain for high producing cows?
a) 35 to 40 percent
b) 10 to 20 percent
c) 56 to 61 percent
d) 22 to 27 percent
Explanation: Non fiber carbohydrate is an important component of the cow’s milk. 35-40%non fiber carbohydrate should be present in the ration of a high producing cow.
16 - Question
What does GnRH stand for?
a) Gestation Repression Hormone
b) Genotype Reflection Hormone
c) Goonie Resusitation Hoovermobile
d) Gonadotropin Releasing Hormone
Explanation: GnRH is Gonadotropin Releasing Hormone. GnRH is the harmone which stimulates the synthesis and secretion of the two gonadotropins—luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH)—by the anterior pituitary gland.
17 - Question
What is the average duration of standing the heat in cattle?
a) 4 hours
b) 12 hours
c) 70 hours
d) 8 hours
Explanation: The average duration of standing heat is 15 to 18 hours, but heat duration may vary from 8 to 30 hours among cows. An estrous cow usually stands to be mounted 20 to 55 times during her estrous period. Each mount lasts three to seven seconds.
18 - Question
What is the approximate time of ovulation in cattle after the beginning of heat?
a) 60 hours
b) 90 hours
c) 30 hours
d) 3 hours
Explanation: Traditionally, the cow that stands still and allows others to mount her is in “standing heat.” Standing is the primary sign of estrus. Ovulation occurs at approximately 24 to 32 hours after the onset of standing estrus in dairy cows.
19 - Question
What hormone is responsible for maintaining a pregnancy?
Explanation: This group of hormones is responsible for the development of female sexual characteristics. Usually formed in the ovaries, estrogen is also made by the placenta during pregnancy to help maintain a healthy pregnancy. Progesterone hormone is made by the ovaries and by the placenta during pregnancy.
20 - Question
What is the scientific term for birth?
Explanation: Parturition, also called birth or childbirth, process of bringing forth a child from the uterus, or womb. The prior development of the child in the uterus is described in the article human embryology. The process and series of changes which take place in a woman’s organs and tissues as a result of the developing fetus are discussed in the article pregnancy.
21 - Question
In reference to reproduction, what does CL stand for?
a) Cattle Lutalysis
b) Cervix Lymphocyte
c) Compound Luteum
d) Corpus Luteum
Explanation: The corpus luteum is a temporary endocrine structure involved in ovulation and early pregnancy. During ovulation, the primary follicle leads to the formation of the secondary follicle and subsequently the mature vesicular follicle. At ovulation, the follicle ruptures expelling the ovum into the fallopian tube.
22 - Question
To the hundredth, how many pounds of milk are in one gallon?
a) 8.52 pounds
b) 8.72 pounds
c) 8.92 pounds
d) 8.62 pounds
Explanation: This is because a gallon of milk weighs about 8.6 pounds, give or take, based upon whether it is whole milk (heavier) or skim (lighter). But for our purposes, 8.6 and 11.63 are accurate enough.
23 - Question
What pathway in young calves directs milk into the abomasum, bypassing the rumen, reticulum, and omasum?
a) Rumen bypass groove
b) Masticulas passinomis
c) Esophageal groove
d) Rumen passinomis
Explanation: The esophageal groove is a curved muscle that lies in the throat of the calf. When a calf drinks water from a trough or eats meal and grains, the esophageal groove stays curved to direct these foods to the rumen for digestion. It is also a pathway in young cows to direct milk into the abomasums.
24 - Question
Milk fever is also (scientifically) known as what?
a) Postpartum paresis
c) Masticular Paresis
d) Parturient paresis
Explanation: Milk fever, postparturient hypocalcemia, or parturient paresis is a disease, primarily in dairy cattle, but also seen in beef cattle, characterized by reduced blood calcium levels.
25 - Question
What is Parturient paresis caused by?
a) Low blood levels of ionized calcium
b) Low blood levels of ionized sodium
c) Low blood levels of ionized zinc
d) Low blood levels of ionized vitamin-D
Explanation: Parturient paresis, also called milk fever, in cattle, a disorder characterized by abnormally low levels of calcium in the blood (hypocalcemia). It occurs in cows most commonly within three days after they have calved, at a time when the cow’s production of milk has put a severe strain on its calcium stores.
26 - Question
According to the NRC, what percent calcium should a dry cow ration contain?
a) 1 percent
b) 2 percent
c) 10 percent
d) 39 percent
Explanation: The required dietary energy concentration is a function of the energy requirement and the feed intake rate. The cow ration should contain about 39 percent of calcium.
27 - Question
High potassium intake will decrease a cows ability to mobilize what?
a) Bone phosphorus
c) Bone calcium
Explanation: Having a diet with too much potassium in the weeks before calving can make the cows weak and make them downer cows. It can make them susceptible to milk fever, hence affecting the ability to mobilize bone calcium. The critical time is 4-6 weeks before calving.
28 - Question
Cows that are at risk of developing ketosis can be fed what vitamin to help prevent ketosis?
Explanation: Another supplement that might be useful to people who consume the ketogenic diet is Niacin. Vitamin D is a fat-soluble nutrient that also functions as a hormone in the body.
29 - Question
Hairy Heel Wart is scientifically known as what?
a) Digital Divide
b) Digital Dermatitis
c) Intraheel laminitis
d) Digital phlegmon
Explanation: Bovine digital dermatitis is an infectious condition of the foot caused by bacteria called Treponemes. Infections typically result in ulcers and/or warts.
30 - Question
Foot Rot is scientifically known as what?
a) Intraheel laminitis
b) Digital Dermatitis
c) Interdigital phlegmon
Explanation: Footrot is a subacute or acute necrotic infection that originates in the interdigital skin, leading to cellulitis in the digital region.