Engineering Questions with Answers - Multiple Choice Questions
Primary Production of Milk Engineering MCQs
1 - Question
Curd is the _______________during the cheese making process.
a) A region which supplies substantial components required
b) Material found in the stomach of young calves necessary
c) Liquid portion at the bottom on the container that is hard to dispose of
d) From Custard-like substance formed at the top of the container
Explanation: When during the fermentation the cheese maker has gauged that sufficient lactic acid has been developed; rennet is added to cause the casein to precipitate. As the curd is formed, milk fat is trapped in a casein matrix. After adding the rennet, the cheese milk is left to form curds over a period of time. It has custard like texture.
2 - Question
Butter is made from the milk and/or cream and must contain a minimum of?
a) 5% fat
b) 20% fat
c) 50% fat
d) 80% fat
Explanation: Butter is a dairy product containing up to 80% butterfat which is solid when chilled and at room temperature in some regions and liquid when warmed.
3 - Question
Cottage cheese is a soft, unripened cheese with approximately _____________ moisture content.
Explanation: All cottage cheeses are soft and contain a lot of water – their moisture content is up to almost 80%. The remaining one fifth consists of dry matter.
4 - Question
Parmesan and/or Romano cheese are very hard grated/shaken cheese with __________ moisture content.
Explanation: Parmesan is considered to be a dry cheese because its maximum moisture content is 50%. Its minimum milk fat content is 22%.
5 - Question
Rennet is used in many milk products to produce a thicker bodied product. Natural rennet comes from?
a) Mines in Eastern China
b) Microscopic plants growing the ocean
c) Inside the stomach of young claves
d) Composted cow manure treated with UV rays
Explanation: Rennet is a complex of enzymes produced in the stomachs of ruminant mammals. Chymosin, its key component, is a protease enzyme that curdles the casein in milk. This helps young mammals digest their mothers’ milk.
6 - Question
Cultured sour cream is required by Federal standards to have a minimum of ___________
a) 3.25% fat
b) 5% fat
c) 10% fat
d) 18% fat
Explanation: Sour cream is a cultured cream product that contains about 20% butterfat and has a sour flavor.
7 - Question
Sour Cream frequently develops a bitter flavor due to continued bacterial proteolytic enzyme activity when stored for more than?
a) 1 week
b) 3-4 weeks
c) 6-8 weeks
d) 10-12 weeks
Explanation: Bitter off flavors are often indicators of excess proteolytic activity. Sour cream must remain highly viscous when in contact with warm food. Processing companies develop starter cultures that cause optimum bitter flavor development when stored more than 3-4 weeks.
8 - Question
Yogurt is manufactured from fresh, whole, low fat or skim milk that is heated before fermentation. However, Federal standards require yogurt to have a minimum of _____ fat.
Explanation: The fat content in yogurt is required to be 3.3% or more in full-fat yogurt. The majority of fat in yogurt is saturated (70%), but it also contains a fair amount of monounsaturated fat.
9 - Question
Low-fat yogurt must have a minimum of _______ fat and a maximum of ________fat.
a) 1%, 4%
b) .5%, 2.5%
c) .5%, 2%
d) 1%, 3.25%
Explanation: The fat content can range from 0.4% – 2% in non-fat yogurt to 3.3% or more in full-fat yogurt . The majority of fat in yogurt is saturated (70%), but it also contains a fair amount of monounsaturated fat.
10 - Question
Non-fat yogurt must have a maximum of ______ fat prior to the addition of bulky flavors.
Explanation: The fat content can range from 0.4% – 2% in non-fat yogurt to 3.3% or more in full-fat yogurt. It should be the minimum of 0.4% prior to addition of bulky flavors.
11 - Question
Cream is a liquid milk product separated from the fluid milk that must contain a minimum of?
a) 4% fat
b) 10% fat
c) 14% fat
d) 18% fat
Explanation: Cream should contain a minimum of 18% fat. It can be different for different variety in the same category.
12 - Question
Heavy cream (whipping cream) contains a minimum milk fat of?
Explanation: Heavy cream has 18% milk fat. It is a rich dairy product.
13 - Question
Dry cream is produced by removing the water from pasteurized milk and/or cream. Dry cream should contain a minimum of?
a) 18% fat
b) 30% fat
c) 40% fat
d) 75% fat
Explanation: There are differences in milk-fat content. All cream contains at least 18 percent milk fat: “whipping cream” is made up of 30 percent, while cartons labeled “heavy cream” or “heavy whipping cream” must contain 36 percent or more.
14 - Question
Dry cream is produced by removing the water from pasteurized milk and/or cream. Dry cream will have a maximum milk fat of _______ for economic factors.
Explanation: Naturally rich 75%-fat powder with a naturally high fat content, Cream Powder is the perfect way to add that rich, creamy, dairy taste to products.
15 - Question
Buttermilk is the product resulting from?
a) An addition of extra fat to raw fluid milk
b) Removal of the butter (fat particles) form raw fluid milk
c) Heating of both butter and milk to facilitate the blending of them together
d) Artificial product produced using non-saturated vegetable oils
Explanation: Buttermilk refers to a number of dairy drinks. Originally, buttermilk was the liquid left behind after churning butter out of cream. This type of buttermilk is known as traditional buttermilk.
16 - Question
Two states dominate the total U.S. cheese production. These two states are?
a) Texas and California
b) Texas and Florida
c) New York and Wisconsin
d) Wisconsin and California
Explanation: Wisconsin and California have the highest cheese production among all USA states. Cheese a very popular dairy product.
17 - Question
Some soft serve frozen dairy products have replaced milk fat with?
a) Peanut butter
d) Vegetable oil
Explanation: Frozen desserts have vegetable oil in it. These frozen yogurts are also a replacement to traditional ice cream. They replace milk fat with vegetable oil.
18 - Question
By FDA definition of an imitation product, which of the following is NOT true?
a) Taste like the real product it represents
b) Has the same nutritional value as the real product it represents
c) Looks like the real product it represents
d) Imitation products aren’t regulated by the FDA
Explanation: A food that is a substitute for and resembles another food shall not be deemed to be an imitation provided it meets each of the following requirements: (i) It is not nutritionally inferior to the food for which it substitutes and which it resembles.
19 - Question
A substitute product by FDA definition meets all of the following statements except?
a) Taste like the real product it represents
b) Has the same nutritional value as the real product in replaces
c) They looks like the real product it represents
d) Imitation products are not regulated by the FDA
Explanation: Imitation products are regulated by FDA. Hence the statement is not true.
20 - Question
Some dairy food products have a “REAL” seal on the package. This seal cannot be placed on a package that does NOT adhere to the following standards.
a) Produced from U.S. milk
b) Meets federal and state standards
c) Imitation or substitute foods
d) Produced from NON-organic sources
Explanation: Products bearing the REAL® Seal are certified as having been made in this country with milk from cows on U.S. dairy farms and without imported, imitation, or substitute ingredients. The REAL® Seal means not only that a product is made with real dairy foods, but that it is made in the USA.
21 - Question
Osteoporosis may be reduced by consuming adequate quantities of milk and/or milk products. Osteoporosis is the?
a) Inflammation of the skin cells causing hair loss and scaling of the skin
b) Condition of deterioration of the soft tissue in the retina, leading to blurry vision and poor eye sight
c) Loss of bone mass due to a decrease in the bone matrix and minerals
d) Development of a hard calloused layer of skin upon the sole of the foot
Explanation: Osteoporosis is a bone disease that occurs when the body loses too much bone, makes too little bone, or both. It may be reduced by the consumption of milk and milk products.
22 - Question
Properly processed UHT milk may be stored at room temperature for?
a) 24-28 hours
b) 10-15 days
c) Several weeks
d) 6 months
Explanation: An alternative process is HTST pasteurization (high temperature/short time), in which the milk is heated to72 °C (162 °F) for at least 15 seconds. UHT milk packaged in a sterile container, if not opened, has a typical unrefrigerated shelf life of six to nine months.
23 - Question
Milk sold through commercial outlets is certified to be from herds free of?
b) Displaced Abomasums
c) Broken Udder Suspensory Ligaments
Explanation: Commercial outlet makes sure that the milk sold by them are from the herds free of tuberculosis. Hence consumer health is not suffered.
24 - Question
Humans may contract ______________ from using raw cows’ or goats’ milk, should the animals have brucellosis.
a) Undulant fever
c) Whooping cough
d) Night blindness
Explanation: Undulant fever: An infectious disease due to the bacteria Brucella that characteristically causes rising and falling fevers, sweats, malaise, weakness, anorexia, headache, myalgia (muscle pain) and back pain. In the US, infection occurs more frequently by ingesting contaminated milk and dairy products.
25 - Question
Milk is produced from female’s mammary glands. These mammary glands are examples of ________
a) Adrenal gland
b) Excretory gland
c) Absorbatory gland
d) Exocrine gland
Explanation: A mammary gland is an exocrine gland in mammals that produce milk to feed young offspring. Mammal’s lactation, the production of enough milk for nursing, occurs only in phenotypic females who have gestated in recent months or years.
26 - Question
The secretary tissue within the mammary gland is a grapelike structure called?
c) Glanus cistern
d) Annular ring
Explanation: A mammary alveolus is a small cavity or sac found in the mammary gland. Mammary alveoli are the site of milk production and storage in the mammary gland.
27 - Question
The California Mastitis Test (CMT) asks that you used only ___________ milk.
b) Milk after dry-off
c) The first stream during milking
d) The 2nd stream during milking
Explanation: The California mastitis test (CMT) is a simple cow-side indicator of the somatic cell count of milk. It operates by disrupting the cell membrane of any cells present in the milk sample, allowing the DNA in those cells to react with the test reagent, forming a gel. It uses 2nd stream during milking.
28 - Question
How many cc’s of milk is required for the CMT?
a) 6 cc
b) 4 cc
c) 2 cc
d) 1⁄2 cc
Explanation: The California mastitis test (CMT) is a simple cow-side indicator of the somatic cell count of milk. It requires about 2cc of milk.
29 - Question
The CMT should be read within _____________
a) 10 sec
b) 20 sec
c) 30 sec
d) 40 sec
Explanation: The CMT test should be analyzed within 20 sec. Otherwise the test value change.
30 - Question
What is the healthiest range for somatic cell counts?
Explanation: A somatic cell count (SCC) is a cell count of somatic cells in a fluid specimen, usually milk. General agreement rests on a reference range less than 200,000 cells/mL for uninfected cows.