Engineering Questions with Answers - Multiple Choice Questions
Primary Production of Milk Engineering MCQs
1 - Question
By regulation, milk from cows treated with antibiotics usually must be withheld for ____ hours.
a) 48 – 72
b) 30 – 60
c) 48 – 108
d) 72 – 96
Explanation: Milk from cows treated with an antibiotic is held as most of the people are sensitive to antibiotic. The milk is withheld for 48-72 hours.
2 - Question
Rules developed by the _____ are designed to protect the health and welfare of consumers.
a) United States Department of Agriculture (USDA)
b) Protein and Lactose Organization (PLO)
c) Future Farmers of America (FFA)
d) Food and Drug Administration (FDA)
Explanation: The Food and Drug Administration is responsible for protecting the public health by ensuring the safety, efficacy, and security of human and veterinary drugs, biological products, and medical devices; and by ensuring the safety of our nation’s food supply, cosmetics, and products that emit radiation.
3 - Question
The standard plate count (SPC) estimates the total numbers of ____ microorganisms.
Explanation: The Aerobic Plate Count (APC) is used as an indicator of bacterial populations on a sample. It is also called the aerobic colony count, standard plate count, Mesophilic count or Total Plate Count. It estimates the number of aerobic microorganisms.
4 - Question
The predominant bacteria of milk that produces lactic acid, which is responsible for the sour taste of milk are the?
Explanation: Streptococcus are predominant bacteria present in milk which produce lactic acid. They are responsible for the sour taste of milk.
5 - Question
The traditional method of pricing milk has used a milk fat differential of one tenth of one percent from a milk fat base of ______ percent.
Explanation: The milk fat differential is the price to be added or subtracted per 1/10 % of milk fat above or below a set percentage. The fat base is of 3.5%.
6 - Question
The United States government purchases surplus ____ from the commercial market under the dairy price support program.
a) Fluid milk products, butter, cheese
b) Cheese, nonfat dry milk, butter
c) Butter, evaporated milk, ice cream
d) Ice milk, yogurt, cottage cheese
Explanation: In order to reduce risk the United state govt. purchases surplus cheese, nonfat dry milk and butter from the commercial market. This is done under Dairy price support program.
7 - Question
The feed additive isoacid gives a ______ pound daily milk response, with maximum response in early lactation.
a) 2 to 4
b) 4 to 6
c) 6 to 8
d) 8 to 10
Explanation: Isoacids are the branched ketoacids resulting from the natural rumen degradation of their corresponding amino acids. Their feed results in 4-6 pounds dairy milk response in cattle.
8 - Question
Mixture of milk and cream containing not less than 10.5 percent milk fat, but less than 18 percent milk fat, is the definition of?
a) Light whipping cream
b) Light cream
d) Heavy cream
Explanation: Half-and-half, also known as half cream in the United Kingdom, is a simple blend of equal parts whole milk and light cream. It averages 10 to 12% fat, which is more than milk but less than light cream. Due to its lower fat content than cream, it can’t be whipped.
9 - Question
One of the mechanisms used by the USDA to remove surplus dairy products from the supply is to subsidize manufacturers who sell overseas at a loss. This is called the?
a) Price Support Program
b) Butter-Powder Formula
c) Dairy Export Incentive Program
d) Commodity Credit Program
Explanation: The Dairy Export Incentive Program (DEIP) is a program that offers subsidies to exporters of U.S. dairy products to help them compete with other nations. USDA pays cash to exporters as bonuses to help them sell certain U.S. dairy products at prices below the exporter’s cost of acquiring them.
10 - Question
Under which of the following weather conditions would you expect to observe the greatest decrease in milk yield per cow?
a) Cold and dry
b) Hot and humid
c) Cool and humid
d) Warm and dry
Explanation: Hot and humid weather conditions leads to a decrease in milk yield in cows.
11 - Question
Although milk from the cow is processed, it is not an engineered or fabricated food and contains about ________ % solids.
Explanation: Milk is approximately 87 percent water and 13 percent solids. As it comes from the cow, the solids portion of milk contains approximately 3.7 percent fat and 9 percent solids-not-fat. Milkfat carries the fat soluble vitamins A, D, E, and K.
12 - Question
Dairy cows need _________ day dry periods for rejuvenation of secretory tissue and restoration of body condition.
Explanation: Dry period, includes the time between halting of milk removal (milk stasis) and the subsequent calving. Generally, 45 to 50 days is recommended. If the period is less than 40 days, then milk yield in the next lactation will be decreased.
13 - Question
Due to high leukocyte counts, farmers should not use the CMT before the ________ day after calving or test milk from cows that are being dried off.
Explanation: Farmers should refrain from using CMT before the 3rd day of calving. This is due to the high leukocyte count of milk.
14 - Question
From the mid 1950’s until 2009, the size of the U.S. dairy herd has?
a) Decreased by 50%
b) Remained static
c) Increased by 50%
d) More than doubled mirroring the population growth
Explanation: There has been a sharp decrease in the dairy herd since 1950- 2009. The decrease has been by almost 50%.
15 - Question
From the mid 1950’s until 2009, individual production per cow has?
a) Remained static
b) Increased by 50%
c) Increased by100%
d) Increased by 400%
Explanation: There is a huge increase in individual production per cow from 1950-2009. The increase is of almost 400%.
16 - Question
The first milk produced after parturition is called?
Explanation: In the first few days after they give birth, cows (like all mammals) produce special milk that is full of antibodies and growth factors. Bovine colostrum — the milk produced by cows in the first few days after giving birth.
17 - Question
Transitional milk is the label given to the milk produced in?
a) One retail region and moved to another retail region for processing
b) From the Colostrum stage to 11th milking that cannot be legally marketed for human consumption
c) In the truck to the holding silos, not yet in the production cycle
d) Produced at the end of lactation but before the cow is transitioned into the dried state
Explanation: Transitional milk occurs after colostrum and lasts for approximately two weeks. This label is given from the Colostrum stage to 11th milking that cannot be legally marketed for human consumption.
18 - Question
It requires ______ pound(s) of milk to produce one pound of butter.
Explanation: The amount of milk required to make one pound of butter varies on the type of milk. But generally, 22 pounds of milk produce one pound of butter.
19 - Question
It requires ________ pound(s) of milk to produce one gallon of gourmet ice cream.
Explanation: The amount of milk required to make one pound of ice cream varies on the type of milk. But generally, 12 pounds of milk produce one pound of ice cream.
20 - Question
To prevent milk fat from separating itself from the fluid portion of the milk is?
Explanation: Homogenization breakdown large fat globules into smaller globules. Hence it prevents fat separation in milk.
21 - Question
Fat globules in raw milk average about ____________________in diameter.
a) of 1/25,000 of an inch, more or less 1 micron
b) of 6/25,000 of an inch, more or less 6 microns
c) of 1/2,500 of an inch, more or less 100 microns
d) of 1/250 of an inch, more or less 1000 microns
Explanation: The native fat globule membrane (FGM) is comprised of the apical plasma membrane of the secretory cell which continually envelopes the lipid droplets as they pass into the lumen. More than 95% of the total milk lipid is in the form of a globule ranging in size from 0.1 to 15 um in diameter.
22 - Question
Evaporated milk has been preheated to stabilize the protein, followed by the removal of?
a) 30% of the water
b) 60% of the water
c) 90% of the water
d) All of the fat
Explanation: Preheating is carried out of evaporated milk in order to stabilize the proteins. This process is followed by the removal of 60% of water.
23 - Question
Condensed milk on the grocery shelf may have ________added.
Explanation: Condensed milk is cow’s milk from which water has been removed. It is most often found in the form of sweetened condensed milk (SCM), with sugar added.
24 - Question
The major difference between Evaporated and Condensed milk is?
a) Evaporated milk has less water than condensed milk
b) Evaporated milk can be stored non-refrigerated, whereas condensed milk requires refrigeration
c) Condensed milk has a lower fat content than evaporated milk
d) Condensed milk comes in smaller size containers than evaporated milk
Explanation: The major difference that sets these two canned milk products apart is sugar content; sweetened condensed milk, as the name implies, is always sweetened, while evaporated milk is unsweetened. Also evaporated milk can be stored non-refrigerated, while condensed milk requires refrigeration.
25 - Question
Dry milk must have less than _________ % moisture by weight.
Explanation: Dry milk must have a moisture content of 5% by weight. Spray drying is the principal method used for drying milk in the dairy industry.
26 - Question
Dry milk can be stored for long periods of time?
a) In refrigerated vaults
b) At temperatures above 150 degrees
c) In an open container in the cabinet
d) Inside a sealed atmosphere of nitrogen or carbon dioxide
Explanation: Both instant and non-fat powdered milk have a long shelf life if stored in a cool location in a sealed atmosphere of nitrogen or carbon dioxide.
27 - Question
“Cultured” in front of the name of a milk product indicates?
a) Product is older and more mature
b) Product is highly refined
c) Product has appropriate bacteria added to it
d) Product has been through a school and is more expensive
Explanation: Cultured milk product has added bacteria to it. These bacteria are healthy and aid digestion.
28 - Question
A “acidified” label on a milk product indicates that the product was produced by?
a) Souring the milk
b) Enriching the milk with added iron
c) Cows consumed acid rain water
d) Passing the milk through a reverse osmosis filtration system
Explanation: Soured milk is a food product produced by the acidification of milk. The acid causes milk to coagulate and thicken, inhibiting the growth of harmful bacteria and improving the product’s shelf life.
29 - Question
Cottage cheese from the grocery shelf must contain no less than?
a) .5% fat
b) 1% fat
c) 2% fat
d) 4% fat
Explanation: Cottage cheese is low in calories but very high in protein and healthy nutrients. It must contain atleast 4% fat.
30 - Question
Low fat cottage cheese must contain a maximum of?
a) .5% fat
b) 1% fat
c) 2% fat
d) 4% fat
Explanation: Low-fat cottage cheese, made with 2 percent milk, contains 194 calories per cup. It must not contain fat more than 2%.