Engineering Questions with Answers - Multiple Choice Questions

MCQs on The Immune Response

1 - Question

. What is not required in the innate immune responses?
a) antigen
b) strong immunity
c) pathogen
d) previous contact

View Answer

Answer: d
Explanation: In innate immune responses, prior encounter with the microbe is not required. The innate immune responses provide the body with first line of defense. The other type of immunity is acquired immunity.




2 - Question

. Which of the following group of pathogens always reside intracellularly in the host?
a) virus
b) fungi
c) molds
d) bacteria

View Answer

Answer: a
Explanation: The viruses (both DNA and RNA) always reside inside the host cell and hence can be classified as intracellular pathogens. Others such as bacteria can be intracellular or extracellular.




3 - Question

The phagocytes can recognize pathogens by means of _____________________
a) necrosis factor
b) complement activation
c) pattern recognition receptors
d) adhesion molecules

View Answer

Answer: c
Explanation: The pathogens make their initial contact with phagocytic cells (dendrites and macrophages) which possess pattern recognition receptors (PRRs). The PRRs can recognize the highly conserved macromolecules in bacteria and viruses.




4 - Question

Which of the following proteins in fruit fly play the major function of dorsoventral polarity of the fly embryo?
a) Toll
b) NEF1
c) Transposons
d) Linker DNA

View Answer

Answer: a
Explanation: The protein Toll, present in the fruit fly, plays a dual role of promoting dorsoventral development of the embryo and providing the fly with immunity against pathogens.




5 - Question

Which of the following drug acts by stimulating toll-like receptors (TLRs)?
a) Doxorubicin
b) Neosporin
c) Aldara
d) Vimentin

View Answer

Answer: c
Explanation: The drug Imiquimod commercially known as Aldara is a drug that acts by activating the toll-like receptors at the site. This further allows mounting of immune response at the site of application.




6 - Question

Innate immune responses are accompanied by inflammation.
a) True
b) False

View Answer

Answer: a
Explanation: Innate immune responses are usually accompanied by inflammation at the site of infection. At this site certain cells and plasma proteins leave the blood vessels and enter the affected tissues.




7 - Question

Which of the following is an antimicrobial peptide synthesized by lymphocytes?
a) adhesins
b) condensins
c) defensins
d) complement

View Answer

Answer: c
Explanation: Defensins are antimicrobial peptides synthesized by the lymphocytes and epithelial cells. The defensins can bind to various pathogenic bacteria and bring about their demise. Similarly, blood also contains complement – a group of soluble proteins that carry out the destruction of pathogens.




8 - Question

. Which type of immune cells are responsible for eradicating intracellular pathogens?
a) natural killer cells
b) mast cells
c) neurons
d) specific lymphocytes

View Answer

Answer: a
Explanation: Natural killer cells are components of innate immunity that act by killing the cells infected by intracellular pathogens. The natural killer (NK) cells induce the infected cells to undergo apoptosis.




9 - Question

Which type of interferons is associated with an antiviral innate response?
a) Type I
b) Type II
c) Type III
d) Type IV

View Answer

Answer: a
Explanation: In a type of antiviral response initiated within the cell, type I interferons (IFN-alpha and IFN-beta) are produced and secreted into the extracellular space where they bind to noninfected cells and render them resistant to subsequent viral infections.




10 - Question

. Adaptive immune responses are more specific that innate immune responses.
a) True
b) False

View Answer

Answer: a
Explanation: Acquired (or adaptive) immune systems are more specific than the innate immune responses and can distinguish between two very similar molecules. The adaptive immune responses possess a memory i.e. an individual cannot develop the same disease twice.




11 - Question

. Humoral immunity is mediated by ______________
a) mast cells
b) neutrophils
c) lymphocytes
d) leukocytes

View Answer

Answer: c
Explanation: Humoral immunity is the falls under the adaptive immune response and is mediated by the antibody-secreting B-lymphocytes. The antibodies are globular, blood-borne proteins of the immunoglobulin superfamily.




12 - Question

. B and T lymphocytes arise from _____________
a) hematopoietic stem cells
b) germ cells
c) somatic cells
d) spermatocytes

View Answer

Answer: a
Explanation: B and T cells arise from the same precursor – hematopoietic stem cells that undergo different pathways of differentiation. B-lymphocytes target the extracellular pathogens whereas the T-lymphocytes attack intracellular pathogens.




13 - Question

. A rare disease congenital agammaglobulinemia is caused due to abnormality in __________________
a) humoral antibody
b) cell-mediated immunity
c) acidic/alkaline pH
d) homeostasis

View Answer

Answer: a
Explanation: Humoral antibody deficiency can lead to a rare a disease – congenital agammaglobulinemia wherein the cell-mediated immunity is normal. It is an immunodeficiency disease that is extremely rare.

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