Engineering Questions with Answers - Multiple Choice Questions

MCQs on Modular Avionics Architectures & UAV Avionics

1 - Question

Which one of the following is not a true with respect to integrated modular avionics architecture?
a) Reduces weight
b) Easy maintenance
c) Hardware independent software
d) Increased life cycle

View Answer

d
Explanation: An integrated modular avionics architecture system reduces weight as the processors are centralized and relatively fewer components are required. It is also easy for maintenance as each component is a separate block which can be repaired or replaced easily. Modular avionics architecture ensures that the software used is hardware independent and can be updated in the future. However they do not ensure increased life cycle of the components, the life cycle of a component is same if the architecture is modular or any other type.




2 - Question

The architecture where each component had its own sensors, processing and display is called as ________
a) Centralized architecture
b) Federated architecture
c) Disjoint or independent architecture
d) Open system architecture

View Answer

c
Explanation: Disjoint architecture is a First generation architecture where the avionics systems were stand alone black boxes which had separate sensors, processors and displays and were linked together by point to point wiring.




3 - Question

Which one of the following is not true with respect with centralized architecture?
a) Complex design
b) Software can be written easily
c) Requires long data buses
d) Computers are in readily accessible bay

View Answer

a
Explanation: The centralized architecture is one where all the components are linked to a single main frame computer for processing. The design is simple and software preparation and update is easy as the computer is easily accessible but requires long data buses running from the component to the computer which increases weight.




4 - Question

Which type of avionic architecture was the first to use DIAS?
a) Centralized architecture
b) Pave pillar architecture
c) Federated architecture
d) Open system architecture

View Answer

c
Explanation: Federated avionic architecture is a type of second generation architecture in which the data from each avionic component was converted into digital information and sent to the main frame computer. This technology was called the DIAS or Digital Avionics Information System.




5 - Question

A time shared multiplex highway is used in Federated avionic architecture.
a) True
b) False

View Answer

a
Explanation: The reason why time division multiplexing is possible is that the data transfer form the component to the computer is digital. This reduces a huge amount of wiring as the data transfer is serial and also the error is not propagated.




6 - Question

What advantage does the concept of IS2 add to the pave pace avionic architecture?
a) Cost reduction
b) Better performance
c) Easy maintenance
d) Software compatibility

View Answer

a
Explanation: The total cost of sensors used in avionic systems costs around 70% of the total avionic system. IS2 is the concept of an integrated sensor system in which the sensors are shared by different avionic components thus reducing the overall cost.




7 - Question

Which avionic architecture allows the existence of heavily armed single seat fighters with a variety of weapons?
a) Federated architecture
b) Pave pillar architecture
c) Centralized architecture
d) Distributed architecture

View Answer

b
Explanation: In a typical single seat fighter aircraft the pilot has to play the role of both controlling the aircraft and weapons management as opposed to a twin seat aircraft where the pilot flies the plane and the RIO or Radar Intercept Officer manages the weapons. Pave pillar architecture allows the pilot to be the weapons system manager without which single seat fighter aircraft like F-22 and the F-35 would not have been possible.




8 - Question

What type of avionic architecture is used in the JSF?
a) Pave pillar avionic architecture
b) Advanced integrated avionic architecture
c) Hierarchical avionic architecture
d) Centralized avionic architecture

View Answer

b
Explanation: The Joint Strike Fighter’s sensors, communications, and flight-control systems will blend together more tightly than any other combat aircraft in history, and will revolve around high-speed fiber-optic data buses and powerful commercial off-the-shelf microprocessors using advanced integrated avionic architecture.




9 - Question

What is the cost-effective solution for UAV displays?
a) HMDs
b) HUDs
c) HDDs
d) No display for UAV

View Answer

a
Explanation: Since the UAV is unmanned it does not require HDD or HUD but since the pilot is going to be on the ground controlling the UAV, HMDs are considered to be cost-effective and also show good performance and situational awareness.




10 - Question

What is the failure probability for a UAV?
a) 10/hour
b) 102/hour
c) 10-3/hour
d) 10-5/hour

View Answer

d
Explanation: Since the UAV is unmanned its failure would not be fatal, the failure probability for a UAV is less than that of a normal aircraft with a figure of 10-5/hour. Although, a failure might cause damage to the UAV and where it falls. The failure probability differs from mission to mission.




11 - Question

Which one of the following is false with respect to TRN?
a) self contained
b) Unjammable
c) Low accuracy
d) No external systems needed

View Answer

c
Explanation: Terrain reference navigation, TRN, systems are used in cruise missiles and aircraft. One of the major advantage in UAV/UCAV applications is that they are completely self-contained and unjammable as well as of high accuracy. They are completely independent of any external systems such as satellites or ground stations.




12 - Question

A flight management system is not necessary for simple UAVs.
a) True
b) False

View Answer

a
Explanation: Although an FMS is needed for UAVs, for simple UAVs such as radio controlled models does not require FMS. The FMS functions of many smaller UAVs are carried in the ground station.




13 - Question

What is the altitude of HALE?
a) 20,000ft
b) 30,000ft
c) 40,000ft
d) 50,000ft

View Answer

d
Explanation: HALE corresponds to High Altitude and Long Endurance aircraft. It has a service ceiling of 50,000ft and an endurance greater than 20hrs.




14 - Question

What type of communication does the MQ-9 ‘reaper’ UCAV use?
a) Satellite
b) Radio
c) Infrared
d) Microwave

View Answer

a
Explanation: Since the MQ-9 has an endurance of 28hrs and range of 3,200nm it needs a communication system that is not affected by the curvature of the Earth. Satellite communication system is best suited for this as a minimum of 3 satellites is enough to have communication around the world using the technique of triangulation.




15 - Question

In a radio controlled UAV, FHSS technology has more advantage than DSSS technology.
a) True
b) False

View Answer

b
Explanation: FHSS stands for frequency hopping spread spectrum and DSSS for Direct sequence spread spectrum. DSSS technology is more advantageous as it is less susceptible to noise and can not be easily jammed or hijacked.

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