Engineering Questions with Answers - Multiple Choice Questions
MCQs on IPv4
Which of the following is not applicable for IP?
a) Error reporting
b) Handle addressing conventions
c) Datagram format
d) Packet handling conventions
Explanation: The Internet Protocol is the networking protocol which establishes the internet by relaying datagrams across network boundaries. ICMP is a supporting protocol for IP which handles the Error Reporting functionality.
Which of the following field in IPv4 datagram is not related to fragmentation?
Explanation: TOS-type of service identifies the type of packets. It is not related to fragmentation but is used to request specific treatment such as high throughput, high reliability or low latency for the IP packet depending upon the type of service it belongs to.
The TTL field has value 10. How many routers (max) can process this datagram?
Explanation: TTL stands for Time to Live. This field specifies the life of the IP packet based on the number of hops it makes (Number of routers it goes through). TTL field is decremented by one each time the datagram is processed by a router. When the value is 0, the packet is automatically destroyed.
If the value in protocol field is 17, the transport layer protocol used is _____________
Explanation: The protocol field enables the demultiplexing feature so that the IP protocol can be used to carry payloads of more than one protocol type. Its most used values are 17 and 6 for UDP and TCP respectively. ICMP and IGMP are network layer protocols.
The data field cannot carry which of the following?
a) TCP segment
b) UDP segment
c) ICMP messages
d) SMTP messages
Explanation: Data field usually has transport layer segments, but it can also carry ICMP messages. SMTP is an application layer protocol. First it must go through the transport layer to be converted into TCP segments and then it can be inserted into IP packets.
What should be the flag value to indicate the last fragment?
c) TTl value
d) Protocol field value
Explanation: The Flag field in the IP header is used to control and identify the fragments. It contains three bits: reserved, don’t fragment and more fragments. If the more fragments bit is 0, it means that the fragment is the last fragment.
Which of these is not applicable for IP protocol?
a) is connectionless
b) offer reliable service
c) offer unreliable service
d) does not offer error reporting
Explanation: IP does not provide reliable delivery service for the data. It’s dependent upon the transport layer protocols like TCP to offer reliability.
Which of the following demerits does Fragmentation have?
a) complicates routers
b) open to DOS attack
c) overlapping of fragments.
d) all of the mentioned
Explanation: Fragmentation makes the implementation of the IP protocol complex and can also be exploited by attackers to create a DOS attack such as a teardrop attack. Fragmentation won’t be required if the transport layer protocols perform wise segmentation.
Which field helps to check rearrangement of the fragments?
Explanation: The Fragment Offset field specifies where the fragment fits in the original datagram. The offset of the first fragment will always be 0. The size of the field (13 bits) is 3-bits shorter than the size of the total length field (16 bits).