Engineering Questions with Answers - Multiple Choice Questions

MCQs on Gene Expression – Transcription

1 - Question

When was the link between enzymes and inherited disease first elucidated?
a) 1708
b) 1808
c) 1908
d) 2008

View Answer

Answer: c
Explanation: Archibald Garrod was a Scottish physician who in 1908 reported that the absence of an enzyme led to an inherited disorder Alcaptonuria.




2 - Question

Which organism was used for experiments that led to “one gene – one enzyme” hypothesis?
a) Neurospora
b) Nematode
c) Mus musculus
d) Drosophila

View Answer

Answer: a
Explanation: In 1940s George Beadle and Edward Tatum of the California Institute of Technology studied Neurospora, a tropical bread mold which led to the proposal of “one gene – one enzyme” hypothesis.




3 - Question

Which proteolytic enzyme was used in the experiments aimed at elucidating the mutation that causes sickle cell anemia?
a) papain
b) rennin
c) pepsin
d) trypsin

View Answer

Answer: d
Explanation: In 1956 Vernon Ingram of Cambridge University discovered the molecular consequence of mutation that causes sickle cell anemia. He used the proteolytic enzyme, trypsin, to cleave the hemoglobin.




4 - Question

. In patients of sickle cell anemia, the hemoglobin contains a substitution for ____________________
a) glutamic acid
b) ascorbic acid
c) carboxylic acid
d) quinone

View Answer

Answer: a
Explanation: There is valine in sickle cell hemoglobin, in place of glutamic acid in normal cell hemoglobin.




5 - Question

What is the intermediate between a gene and its polypeptide?
a) mRNA
b) tRNA
c) rRNA
d) siRNA

View Answer

Answer: a
Explanation: Messenger RNA (mRNA) is the intermediate between a gene and its polypeptide, discovered in 1961. The other types of RNA play diverse roles in a cell.




6 - Question

Transcription is the synthesis of ______________________
a) RNA
b) DNA
c) Protein
d) Polypeptide

View Answer

Answer: a
Explanation: A messenger RNA is a complimentary copy of one of the two strands of DNA that make up a gene. Transcription is the process of synthesis of RNA from a DNA template.




7 - Question

After transcribing into RNA, the gene is spliced out of the genome.
a) True
b) False

View Answer

Answer: b
Explanation: After transcription of the gene, i.e. production of a messenger RNA from the DNA sequence of the gene, the gene stays in place stored away as genetic information.




8 - Question

. RNA is a mobile nucleic acid.
a) True
b) False

View Answer

Answer: a
Explanation: RNA is a mobile nucleic acid that moves from the nucleus to the cytoplasm after transcription from the gene.




9 - Question

. Which of the following play a role in structural support?
a) rRNA
b) mRNA
c) tDNA
d) tRNA

View Answer

Answer: a
Explanation: Ribosomal RNA (rRNA) plays a role in structural support and catalyzes the reaction in which amino acids are linked to one another.




10 - Question

. Which of the following enzymes are used in the process of transcription?
a) DNA polymerases
b) RNA polymerases
c) DNA helicase
d) DNA topoisomerase

View Answer

Answer: b
Explanation: RNA polymerases or DNA-dependent RNA polymerases are the enzymes responsible for transcription in both eukaryotes and prokaryotes.




11 - Question

. Promoter is a ____________________
a) gene
b) site on DNA
c) site on RNA
d) toxin

View Answer

Answer: b
Explanation: Promoter is sequence on the DNA which is the site of binding for RNA polymerase, prior to initiation of transcription.




12 - Question

Which of the two strands of DNA will be transcribed is determined by the _______________
a) RNA polymerase
b) DNA polymerase
c) Promoter sequence
d) Inducer sequence

View Answer

Answer: c
Explanation: In addition to being a binding site for RNA polymerase, promoter sequences contain the information that determines which of the two strands is transcribed and the site where transcription is initiated.




13 - Question

3. The transcription factors assist the RNA polymerase in locating ________________
a) stop codon
b) mutation
c) active site
d) promoter

View Answer

Answer: d
Explanation: The RNA polymerases are not capable of recognizing the promoters located on the DNA to be transcribed. Transcription factors assist the RNA polymerase in doing so.




14 - Question

Which enzyme makes the transcription, an essentially irreversible process?
a) pyrophosphatase
b) amylase
c) glucamylase
d) topoisomerase

View Answer

Answer: a
Explanation: Reactions leading to the synthesis of nucleic acids must occur under irreversible conditions. These conditions are met during transcription with the aid of enzyme called pyrophosphatase.




15 - Question

. In bacteria, binding of _________ factor to the RNA polymerase increases its affinity for promoter sites in the DNA.
a) alpha
b) sigma
c) rho
d) beta

View Answer

Answer: b
Explanation: In bacteria, binding of the sigma factor to RNA polymerase enzyme increases the latter’s affinity for promoter sequences in the DNA.

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