Engineering Questions with Answers - Multiple Choice Questions
Environmental Science MCQ – Air Pollution – Meteorology
What does the word ‘meteorology’ define?
a) Study of meteors and asteroids
b) Study of measurements and instruments
c) Study of chemical properties of metals
d) Study of the weather and atmospheric changes
Explanation: Meteorological information is necessary predict and plan the control of air pollution.
What is a “tetroon” in the field of meteorology?
a) A tool used to study wind patterns
b) A tool used to study pressure variations
c) A tool used to study temperature deviations
d) A tool used to study humidity
Explanation: Tetroon – Tetrahedral Balloon drifts horizontally along with the wind and is tracked by radar. It is used to analyse local wind patterns.
What does the Richardson number indicate in wind analysis?
a) Mechanical turbulence
b) Convective heat production
c) Mechanical turbulence & Convective heat production
d) None of the mentioned
Explanation: Richardson number (-Ri) gives a relative rate of production of mechanical and convective energy.
Above which Richardson number does vertical mixing in winds disappear?
Explanation: Beyond Richardson number of 0.25, the vertical mixing comes to a standstill and weak horizontal eddies alone remain.
When Richardson number is equal to zero, what is the wind turbulence characteristic?
a) No vertical mixing
b) Weak mechanical turbulence due to stratification
c) Convective mixing is greater than mechanical turbulence
d) Only mechanical turbulence
Explanation: When Richardson number is zero, there is mechanical turbulence alone.
Below what Richardson number does convective mixing start dominating mechanical turbulence?
Explanation: Between 0 and -0.03, both mechanical turbulence and convective mixing are present, but mechanical turbulence is greater. Below -0.04, convective mixing starts dominating.
What is high pressure area with sinking air also known as?
c) Eddy zone
d) Richardson zone
Explanation: Anticyclones are high pressure regions with low ventilation where air is sinking, and is warmed by compression.
What does the term “turbidity” indicate in atmospheric quality?
a) Indicates density of clouds
b) Reduction of light due to dust particles
c) Indicates the humidity
d) Turbulence of winds
Explanation: Turbidity is the term used to describe reduction in light/visibility due to smoke and other dust particles. Due to air pollution, about 15-20% reduction in sunshine is observed in cities.
Which of the following gases vary significantly over time and place at the atmospheric boundary level?
a) Carbon dioxide
c) Water vapour
Explanation: Water vapour varies based on time and place at the atmospheric boundary level due to the continuous action of evaporation and condensation near water bodies.
How does atmospheric pressure vary with increase in altitude?
a) It decreases linearly
b) It decreases exponentially
c) It increases linearly
d) It increases till stratosphere and then starts decreasing exponentially
Explanation: At first the pressure gradually decreases with increase in altitude, and with further increase the rate at which pressure drops starts increasing.
What does the term obliquity indicate?
a) Earth’s axial tilt of 23.5 degrees
b) Alignment of the Earth’s internal magnetic field
c) Analysis of ocean currents
d) Pressure variation over different seasons
Explanation: Obliquity is the term used to indicate the Earth’s axial tilt which is responsible for the seasonal variations across the northern and southern hemispheres.
Which are the two forces balanced by the geostrophic wind?
a) Coriolis effect and pressure gradient force
b) Coriolis force and centrifugal force
c) Frictional force and pressure gradient force
d) Pressure gradient force and centrifugal force
Explanation: Geostrophic winds are those winds which blow parallel to isobars when the both the Coriolis force and pressure gradient force are balanced.
Which of the following has the highest albedo?
a) Water surface
b) Plateau surfaces
d) Fresh snow
Explanation: Albedo indicates the fraction of solar energy that is reflected back to space. Fresh snow/ice has the highest albedo due to its reflective properties.
The stability of the stratosphere is due to which of the following reasons?
a) Absorption of solar energy by ozone layer
b) Strong wind currents
c) Pressure is minimal
d) All of the mentioned
Explanation: The ozone layer in the stratosphere absorbs radiations (mainly UV) coming from the sun. This energy is the key to stratospheric stability.
Which of the following is regarded as climate control factor(s)?
c) Ocean currents
d) All of the mentioned
Explanation: Climate is affected by latitude, elevation, ocean currents, etc.