Engineering Questions with Answers - Multiple Choice Questions

# Computational Fluid Dynamics – Diffusion Problem – Orthogonal and Non-Orthogonal Grids

1 - Question

Which of these statements is true?
a) The Cartesian and non-Cartesian orthogonal grids lead to the same discretized equation
b) A non-Cartesian orthogonal grid leads to an extra source term when compared to the Cartesian orthogonal grids
c) The equations of the Cartesian and non-Cartesian orthogonal grids differ by a trigonometric function
d) The equations obtained from a non-Cartesian grid has fewer terms when compared to that obtained from a Cartesian grid
Explanation: The discretized equation for the non-Cartesian grids should be exactly the same as obtained from the Cartesian grids. The solution should also be the same if the boundary conditions match.

2 - Question

Non-orthogonality creates a problem in _________ of the steady-state diffusion equation.
a) the neighbouring terms
b) the source term
c) the direction of the surface vector
d) the magnitude of the surface vector
Explanation: The surface vector and the vector joining the owner and the neighbouring elements are not collinear for non-orthogonal grids. Thus, non-orthogonal grids need special attention in the steady-state diffusion equation.

3 - Question

Non-orthogonality leads to ________ in diffusion problems.
a) cubic-diffusion
b) less-diffusion
d) cross-diffusion
Explanation: In general, the surface vector of the non-orthogonal grids is given as the sum of the vector connecting the owner and the neighbour elements and an additional vector. This leads to an extra term in the diffusion equation called the cross-diffusion or non-orthogonal diffusion.

4 - Question

Which of these statements is false?
a) Unstructured grids are always non-orthogonal
b) Structured grids are always orthogonal
c) Non-orthogonal grids can be structured or unstructured
d) Curvilinear structured grids are non-orthogonal
Explanation: Non-orthogonality can exist in structured grids also when it is curvilinear. Structured curvilinear grids and unstructured grids are non-orthogonal. So, the statement “Structured grids are always orthogonal” is wrong.

5 - Question

In the minimum correction approach of decomposing the surface vector of a non-orthogonal grid, the relationship between the vector connecting the owner and the neighbour node (Ef→) and the surface vector (Sf→) is given as _________
a) Sf→sinθ.e⃗
b) Sf→cosθ.e⃗
c) (Sfcosθ)e⃗
d) (Sfsinθ)e⃗

Explanation: Here, a right-angled triangle is formed by the vectors Ef,SfandTf. The Tf vector is orthogonal to the Ef vector in this case. The relation is given by (e⃗ .Sf)e⃗ =(Sfcosθ)e⃗ .

6 - Question

Which of these is correct regarding the minimum correction approach?
a) The non-orthogonal correction is kept as small as possible
b) The non-orthogonal correction is kept as large as possible
c) The surface vector is kept as small as possible
d) The surface vector is kept as large as possible

Explanation: In the minimum correction approach, the decomposition of the surface vector is done in a way that the non-orthogonal correction is as small as possible, thus making the EfandtheTf orthogonal.

7 - Question

In the orthogonal correction approach, the relationship between EfandSf is ________
a) Ef=Sf×e⃗
b) Ef=Sfcosθe⃗
c) Ef=Sfe⃗
d) Ef=Sf.e⃗

Explanation: In this approach, the contribution of the term involving ΦF and ΦC are kept the same as that of the orthogonal mesh. This is achieved by the relation
Ef=Sfe⃗ .

8 - Question

In the over-relaxed approach, the importance of the term involving ΦF and ΦC _________ as the non-orthogonality _________
a) decreases, increases
b) remains the same, increases
c) increases, remains the same
d) increases, increases
Explanation: The importance of the term involving ΦF and ΦC decreases when the non-orthogonality decreases for the minimum correction approach. For the over-relaxed approach, the importance increases.

9 - Question

What is the relationship between Ef→andSf→ using the over-relaxed approach?
a) Ef→=(Sf→).e⃗
b) Ef→=(Sfcosθ)e⃗
c) Ef→=(Sf→)×e⃗
d) Ef→=((Sf→).e⃗ )e⃗

Explanation: The relationship is given by (Sfcosθ)e⃗ . This is calculated in CFD packages as Ef=Sf.Sfe⃗ .Sfe⃗ . The derivation is given as
Ef=(Sfcosθ)e⃗ =(S2fSfcosθ)e⃗ =Sf.Sfe⃗ .Sfe⃗ .

10 - Question

Which of these methods is used to treat the non-orthogonal diffusion term?
a) Deferred correction
b) Predictor–corrector
c) Green-gauss
d) Trial and error method